Saturday, January 28, 2023

Sultan Saifuddin Quthuz, the Conqueror of the Mongols

Sultan Al-Muzhaffar Saifuddin Quthuz, the Conqueror of the Mongols succeeded in destroying the troops of the ruthless Tartars and once destroyed Baghdad in 1258 AD

HISTORY recorded the gold ink of Saifuddin Quthuz bin Abdullah Al-Mua’zzi or Sultan Saifuddin Quthuz, the Conqueror of the Mongols. Some history also records his name as Muhammad bin Mamdud.

Qutuz nicknamed A-Muzaffar (the one who always wins) and Saifuddin (the sword of religion). If it is read as al-Malik al-Muẓaffar Sayf ad-Dīn Quṭuz.

Born in Khawarzim, he is known to have a reddish-white skin color and a very thick beard. Quthuz is the brother of Jalaluddin Al-Khwarizmi, the famous King of Khwarizmi, who once fought the Tartar army.

In his childhood, Qutuz had been taken prisoner, precisely after the defeat of the Khawarzhim from the Tartar army. After that he was sold to Damascus and bought by Sultan Abeik (Aybak) or Al Malik Al Muizz Izuddin Aybak.

After Sultan Aybak learned of Qutuz’s obedience and sincerity, he included him in the royal family. Qutuz was known as a person who always kept his prayers and even though he never tasted liquor.

He has great courage and intelligence. After the marriage of his master, Aybak, with his wife, Syajarah Ad-Dur, he and his master moved to Egypt, until Aybak became king there.

Among the Egyptians, Qutuz was famous for his piety, courage, and sincerity. With the qualities he has, he is loved by them.

Atabik appointed him as a member of the squad. After it was discovered that Tatar troops were approaching Egypt, he was appointed deputy police officer.

Qutuz managed to secure Egypt from the attacks of King Louis IX who was Christian. Qutuz took him captive and put him in Ibn Lukman’s house in Manshurah.

Qutuz was appointed Governor of Egypt by Sultan Aybak. He remained governor of Egypt when Sultan Aybak was assassinated by his own wife in a conspiracy, in 1257 and succeeded by his son Al-Mansur Ali.

After Aybak’s death, his 15-year-old son was appointed as his successor. But the son of Aybak entrusted Qutuz to take over his post in the administrative and military fields.

Ain Jalut War

The dignitaries of the kingdom gathered, each convincing the other that to fight against the Tatars it was necessary to have a king. If victory can be achieved, they agree to appoint a leader and they will pledge allegiance to him.

After Quthuz managed to control Damascus, King Holako sent envoys to him. Through the envoy Holako threatened Quthuz if he did not want to surrender.

But Quthuz immediately killed his messengers and hung their heads at the gates of the Gate Zuwailah (a place to frighten the enemy and to motivate the Muslim troops). In the year 658 AH, Qutuz with his army set out to fight against the Tatar forces.

Qutuz saw it better to attack the Tartars before they attacked first. He also thought it better to move before they attacked him.

Then He prepared an army and alerted his military forces and departed for Syria. The Tartar troops under Katbagha’s leadership only realized the situation when they heard the neighing of the horses of the Quthuz troops that filled the lowlands where they were.

Qutuz met the Tatar troops at the Baisan herd, a place known as Ain Jalut. The battle with the Tatars lasted four days. He and his army commander Bebris always surprise the Tatar troops with new strategies from time to time.

The battle raged fiercely, although the number of Muslim troops was greatly outnumbered by the Tartars. Al-Muzaffar Quthu’s fighting spirit flared up, burning the spirit of the Muslim troops, even though his horse was killed in the war.

He continued to fight on foot while swinging his sword. Even though one of his subordinates offered to ride his horse, he still refused.

Another story about King Qutuz says that during the Ain Jalut War, his horse was killed. And at that time, he did not find a horseman, so he was forced to walk and still stand tall in the middle of the battle.

In the midst of war raging, while the place of power is in the heart. When a prince saw him, he got off his horse and swore to Qutuz to ride his horse, but Qutuz refused and said to the prince, “I will not prevent the Muslims from benefiting you,”

In another source the editorial said, “I do not prevent you from providing benefits to Muslims”. He started fighting and called the Muslims, “Defend Islam!”

Qutuz remained in that position until his servant came with a horse, and he rode it. Then a prince denounced his attitude. “O Khund, why don’t you ride a horse so and so? If the enemy sees you, they will kill you so that Islam will be destroyed because of you.” Then he replied, “If I die, I go to heaven. While Islam belongs to Allah, He will not waste it. So and so, so and so, so and so, have been killed.”

Muslims beat Tartar

In the month of Ramadan 658 H, the Ain Jalut War raged between the two sides and ended with the defeat of the Tartar forces. The Ppanglima and most of his family were killed.

Then Qutuz instructed Prince Baybars AI-Bandaqadari to follow the defeated troops to Aleppo. As for the Tartar troops who were still in Damascus, they fled, but the Muslim forces of the inhabitants of Damascus chased him and killed him and rescued the prisoners from their hands.

One of the emirs of the troops managed to get close to the commander of Tartar, Kitbuga, then he dueled, it didn’t last long, he was able to cut off the commander’s head and stuck it on the tip of the spear. For a moment the Tartar troops were torn apart and then turned around and fled aimlessly.

The Muslim army pursued them, slashed their necks, took control of what they left behind, like weapons and treasures throughout the land of Syria; Damascus, Baalbek, Homs, Hamah and Aleppo. Almalik was praised throughout the country for his services in liberating the Tartars.

On the way back to Egypt, Ruknuddin Baibars and his troops turned out to have an evil plan to kill Saiduddin Quthuz. This is because he is considered not to want anyone among the slaves (Mamalik) to have an important position, even though he has fought desperately with him.

Together with Ruknuddin Baibars they agreed to kill Saifuddin Quthuz. One day after Saifuddin came home from hunting and returned to the tent, he was visited by the leaders of the slaves led by Ruknuddin Baibars.

They said hello, then Ruknuddin asked to be given a number of Tartar prisoners. Ruknuddin pretended to kiss Sultan Quthuz’s hand, he quickly stabbed his sword into Sultan Qutuz and the other emirs followed. So Sultan Saifuddin Quthuz was martyred on Saturday, 16 Dzuiqa’dahin 658 H Dzulga’dah.

Sultan Saifuddin Quthuz was eventually buried in Qhashir, but later his body was transferred to Cairo. His grave is often visited by people.

After Bebris was made king, he disguised his grave from humans and after that it is not known where it is anymore.*

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