Saturday, January 28, 2023

Traces of Relations between the Turkish Caliphate and the Archipelago

CONNECTION Turkish Caliphate with the Southeast Asian region, one of which was the Archipelago, which began around the XII century, when the Seljuk Turks began to participate in international trade activities between West Asia and China, following the Arab, Persian, and Indian Muslim traders who had arrived earlier.

According to Turkish historians, Affan Seljuk and Ismail Hakki Goksoy, long before the Portuguese came to the Archipelago, the Seljuk Turks’ relations with Southeast Asia had been visible since the XII century, when these Turkish traders began to participate in international trade between West Asia and China, along with other traders. Arab, Persian and Indian Muslims after the Seljuk Turkish Sultanate ruled over the entire Middle East region in the second half of the XI Century.

Merchants Turkey who lived near the Khurmuz Strait traveled by ship to China via the Malay Archipelago during the last Abbasid period in Baghdad. Uka Tjandrasasmita noted that under the leadership of the Seljuk Sultan, the last Abbasid Caliphate, Arab and Turkish Muslim traders arrived in Leran, Gresik, East Java.

Ibn Battuta’s Notes

The presence of the Turks is also recorded by Ibn Batuțah (1369 AD), – who visited the Samudera-Pasai Sultanate, North Sumatra on his way to China in 1345 and 1346 AD. Ibn Bațuțah in Rihlah-His records note that the state tradition of this sultanate was similar to that of the sultanates of Turkey and Delhi, India. He also said he met the queen, who spoke fluent Turkish, in Thawalisi. The queen’s name in Turkish spelling is Urduja and he describes the country which he calls Thawalisi as:

“It is a vast land, and its king dares to challenge the Emperor of China. He has a large number of junks, and with this he will fight the Chinese, until they offer peace. Most of the population are still polytheists. They are handsome in appearance and resemble Turks. Their skin color is more towards yellowish like copper color. They have extraordinary courage and strength. Their women were good at riding horses, good at throwing the javelin, and like men in battle. We were put into one of the beautiful and big port cities in Kailukiri city. It was seen that the Hulubalang (guardians) were going back and forth in the city and everyone who came to this city brought gifts for the king’s son. The holder of the city territory is the king’s sister named Urdüjä.” (Muhammad ibn Abdullah Ibn Battuta, Rihlah Ibn Battuta, Tuhfatun Nuzzär fi Garā’ib al-Tii’ih al-Amsär wa A’aib al-Asfar. Muhammad as-Sa’id Muhammad az-Zaini (pentahqiq).

Ibn Battuta also narrated that this queen was of good character, polite, good at speaking in Turkish, and was Muslim. Ibn Bațuțah’s Riủlah made Islam more widely spread in the Far East and the Archipelago, especially when he met the Sultan of Samudra Pasai, Sultan Mālik az-Zāhir in 745H/1345M. This trip provides a more global perspective on Muslim countries around the world.

In the aftermath, the network of ulama and Muslim brotherhood in the West and the East has always been maintained. Sultan Mālik az Zāhir, according to Ibn Batuțah, was a powerful and Shafi’i king. He has great respect for the clergy. He has a mufti named Qadhi Sharif Amir Sayyid ash-Syirāzī and Tajuddīn al-Isfahanī. Ibn Bațuțah records that he stayed two weeks in the Pasai Ocean, but probably longer than that time because he did not go to China until about April 1346 CE, when the Southwest season blew and ships started heading for Canton (China). (The Adventure of Ibn BattutaDunn)

According to Donald Maclaine Campbell, the success of Ibn Battuta’s preaching visit to Islamic countries in the East in the middle of the XIV century, such as India, China, Cambodia and Champa, according to Donald Maclaine Campbell, also became an important foothold for Islamic da’wah in the countries of the Indian Ocean. Islamic ambassadors were also sent to other countries, especially Islamic countries.

In Delhi (India), Ibn Bațuțah met Amir Daulah, a Pasai emissary in India. Sultan Pasai had sent envoys to Quilon, a city on the southern Malabar Coast, in 1282 AD. While he was in Canton (China), Ibn Bațuțah saw the ship of the Sultan of Pasai and met the Pasai envoy in China. The sending of Pasai ambassadors also continued until Pasai was subjugated by the Portuguese (1521M).

Tome Pires said that Pasai envoys regularly come to China to pay tribute. Similarly, the ambassadors of Malacca, Java, and Siam every five years sent the best goods from their countries, which according to their knowledge the Chinese people liked.

This proves that Pasai has extensive relations with outside kingdoms. An increasingly broad and effective network between scholars. this is the main factor causing the success of the scholars and guardians in the spread of Islam in Java.

The King of Java, the King of Siam, the King of Pase, the King of Malacca. These send their ambassadors with the seal of China to the king of China every five years and every ten years, and each one sends him the best there is in his country of what he knows they like there.

(The king of Java, the king of Siam, the king of Pase, the king of Malacca. They send their ambassadors with a Chinese seal to the king of China every five years and every ten years, and each one sends him the best in his country from what he knows they like there ).”

Turkish people in Pasai Ocean

Likewise, there is other evidence regarding the relationship between the archipelago and the influence of Turkish culture in North Sumatra. Ismail Hakki Goksoy notes that the use of the names and titles of Sultan Mamalik by the sultans of Samudera Pasai at the end of the XIII century such as Mālik aş-Şālih and Malik az-Zahir proves the close relationship between Sumatra and West Asia, especially the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. (Ottoman-Aceh RelationsGoskoy).

Denys Lombard also notes that the Turks who had agents in Pasai who bought pepper for their trade in the Mediterranean Sea, in 1537-1538–when Solomon Pasha carried out a resistance expedition to the Portuguese in Diu-sent reinforcements in the form of 300 soldiers. and Turkish weapons experts to the Sultan of Aceh. (Nusa JavaDenys Lombar)

Prior to the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, the presence of Turkish traders in this area was also recorded in Portuguese sources. For example, Tome Pires’ visit to Pasai in 1511 noted that Pasai City was a strong, prosperous and cosmopolitan city. The population is not less than 20,000 people.

He also noted that in Pasai there were many foreign traders from India, West Asia, and among them there were those who were called “Rumi” or Turks. The traders came from Cairo, Aden, and Khurmuz, they first landed in the port of Gujarat, India then sailed to Sumatra and Malacca.

Turkey Balancing Portuguese Power

Turkey, which was rising as a power in the Islamic world, played an important role in the Indian Ocean trade route, replacing the previous Arab nation. The influence of the Ottoman Turks after the capture of Constantinople did not only stop at the struggle for influence with the Portuguese in trade but continued with the increasing image of the Ottoman Turks which was very felt in Islamic countries in the Indian Ocean and between. The Ottomans positioned itself as the leader of the Islamic world.

The Muslims soon realized that the arrival of the Portuguese invaders had brought them together to face the “common enemy”. The Islamic sultanates initiated more cosmopolitan relations with the Islamic world, in particular establishing new defense and military cooperation with the Ottomans.

Shortly after the conquest of Constantinople, the Turkish sultans began to use the naval fleet as a means of conquest, Mitylene (1462), and Negroponte (1470), which were cities near the Turkish border in Greece.

These preparations of naval forces marked an important stage in the emergence of the Ottoman Turks as a maritime power, along with the expansion of Turkey’s territory into the western Mediterranean Sea. The Ottomans also formed a Navy for the Suez region and the Indian Ocean to stem the Portuguese military power. Turkey’s military power can control Asia, Africa, and Europe quickly

The Ottomans decided to fulfill the request of the sultanates in the Indian Ocean as a general policy of the state. This policy was motivated by Portuguese tyranny against Muslims in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

The sultanates in this region, which did not have sufficient military strength to resist the invasion of Port, sought the help of the Ottoman Turks. Turkey had an interest in the Asian and European spice trade because it received excise taxes and reasonable prices from Asian traders, unlike if there was a price monopoly from the Portuguese. Trading cities in Syria and Egypt, which by then had been subject to Ottoman rule, also benefited. The Ottomans wanted to make Khurmuz in the Bay of Basra the gateway to South Asia and the Maluku Islands.

The Islamic merchants from Khurmuz had a mixed Persian-Arabic trading community. They brought horses, carpets, pearls, gold, silver, copper, silk, rosewater, raisins, seeds, grains, and alum to India. At the port of Khurmuz there was a sale and purchase of goods originating from East Asia and Malaya-Indonesia with goods originating from Arabia, Syria, and from the east coast of Africa, Turkey, Armenia, Cairo, and goods from Europe.

In 916 H/1512M, Salim bin Bayazid or known as Salim I occupied the throne of the Ottoman Empire. The movement of the expansion of the Ottoman Turks experienced a change from Europe to Arabia and the East (Nusantara). During his reign, Sultan Salim I had to deal with the Daulah Shafawiyyah which had just emerged in Iran at the beginning of the XVI Century (1501 AD).

Turkey-Aceh relations

Furthermore, the Turkish-Aceh cooperation occurred when the Turkish soldiers with Aceh re-emerged in 957 H/1547 AD, when they jointly attacked the Portuguese in Malacca. However, according to Ismail Hakki Göksoy, officially the relations between the Ottoman Turks and Aceh only occurred in the 1560s, marked by the sending of the first Acehnese ambassador to Istanbul during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent,

Anthony Reid notes that Sultan Alauddin sent an ambassador to Turkey in 1564 AD with various gifts for Caliph Suleiman and promising spices from Indonesian territory if Malacca returned to Islamic hands.

Suleiman the Magnificent immediately responded to the request for assistance by sending 500 Turkish soldiers, gunners, engineers, and artillery specialists from Egypt.

The dispatch of the Acehnese ambassador to Istanbul continued during the Caliph Salim II (1566-1574M). Göksoy noted that the Acehnese ambassador brought a letter stating that the Portuguese had arrested Islamic-flagged ships carrying pilgrims.

When an Aceh ship, loaded with black pepper, silk thread, cinnamon, cloves, camphor and other valuable products of the region, was sent to Mecca in 972H (1564-1565), it was attacked near certain islands by the Portuguese, with three galleons and seven galleys, and the fighting lasted for 4 days and nights; in the end Aceh ship was sunk by the Portuguese with a distance cannon-shot. Some 500 Muslims died in the Ocean and others were made slaves.”

(An Acehnese ship full of black pepper, silk thread, cinnamon, cloves, camphor and other valuable products sent to Mecca in 972H/(1564-5), was attacked by the Portuguese with three warships and seven passenger ships. The battle it lasted for 4 days and nights. The Aceh ship was sunk by the Portuguese with long-range cannon fire. Around 500 Muslims died at sea and the others were made slaves). (Ottoman-Aceh Relations, Goskoy).

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